1. Dave Gamble

    Albert E did not believe is a god, he deployed the term as an abstraction for nature, there is no evidence that he held any religious beliefs at all.

    Lincoln appears to be trickier … what he actually believed is not clear, he strikes me as a deist and not a theist, but does appear to have worn a theist cloak to rally the voters.

    Franklin believed in organized religion as a means for controlling people, and in his 1771 autobiography clearly identified himself as a deist.

    As for Jefferson, he also can be best described as a deist and is most closely connected with Unitarianism and the religious philosophy of Christian deism.

    So to claim that they “believed in God” is not strictly correct, because the deist concept they believed in is not the one most religious people would recognize.

    I personally feel comfortable putting them all into the category “Agnostic Atheists” due to their rejection of the prevailing mainstream beliefs, and instead opting for a deist position.

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